3 Power plant simulators

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Instructor station

Introduction

Surely the instructor has a leading hand in the course of operating personnel training based on the computer simulator. During operation the instructor has the complete information what takes place in the simulator and extensive possibilities to govern the progress of work.

When developing the simulator up, its designers have assumed that the operators trained on the simulator should concentrate upon learning the control elements of the unit and how to control the unit in different cases. So they tried to free the students from actions, unnecessary from this point of view, as much as possible. However, if learning using the computer simulator is carried out for the group of several people, someone shall perform some general-system actions at least for coordination of the group work, for example, start-up of the simulator and loading the initial state. The instructor is responsible for execution of these and other similar system tasks. If the instructors’ tasks would be limited only with these actions, the system administrator or one of the students could take this role upon oneself. In this case training using the simulator after loading the initial state would look like training of group of inexperienced operators on the real power unit with only difference that there are no disastrous effects of management errors.

To increase efficiency of the learning process it is certainly desirable to have the experienced permanent instructor of the simulator. His tasks include preparation of the lessons in advance, selection of operation condition for the group of students (selection of the lesson topic or even selection of initial state for simulation), control of their actions in the course of training, as well as evaluation of the students’ actions.

1. What is the difference between the simulator and a real power unit

Imagine that the process of the personnel training is carried out based upon the real power unit and you conduct a lesson as regards the unit starting-up from hot state, and everything is all right till the certain moment; then due to any mistake of the students one of the pumps is broken or fracture of pipe is occurred in the furnace. Afterwards, you analyze the current situation (check indications of devices, see the mechanism status at the certain moment of time, look through recorded diagrams) and have come to conclusion that the personnel has begun to make mistakes not from the beginning of the experiment, but after the lapse of sufficiently long period of time. To repeat this experiment you have to carry out the expensive repair of the boiler, which takes much time, and in the course of which the students could forget all your recommendations. The difference of the simulator consists in the following, namely: when using the broad possibilities of the simulator, developed by the designers, in a practical manner you can immediately return to the point, where the students have begun to make mistakes, you can scroll through the lesson from the beginning up to the end in fast mode of time, display any variable on the trend for any period of time and etc.

2.Training process arrangement

Prior to commence the personnel training the instructor shall familiarize with the simulator himself. For this, the instructor shall study the simulator interface and special possibilities of the simulator, such as:

  • saving intermediate states;
  • drawing of graphs,
  • set up target both for automatic scrolling of standard lessons and for analysis of exercises made by the students.

The instructor shall also know how to create own initial states.

2.1. Initial state loading and simulation starting-up

In this section we learn the most elementary task – how to load the initial state for simulation and to begin the proper simulation.

Initial state is loaded from the main window of the instructor, which appeared on the screen at once after starting-up the simulator by the system administrator.

Loading of initial state is carried out as follows. At first, it is necessary to open pull-down menu “Lesson”. For that, move the mouse cursor under the item named “Lesson” in the main menu, which is the first left item in this menu, and click it. It is required to note that the main menu is arranged from the upper part of the instructor’s main window.

The first item of the obtained pull-down menu is the item named “Load state…”. Three points at the end of the item name means that its selection results in representation of the dialog box. Let’s select this item, for that, move the mouse cursor under its name and click it.

The appeared dialog window contains the following objects:

  • scrollable object of the available states
  • entry line, where the instructor can enter the selected identifier of state as "Selected State"
  • standard buttons (OK, Cancel)

Initial state can be loaded with the following sequence of steps:

  • Click the mouse button over the line with description of the selected statev
  • Click the mouse over the button "OK"

Upon loading the initial state, most of the items in pull-down menu “Simulation” will be accessible, including the item “Run”. Open the pull-down menu “Simulation” and click the element “Run” with the mouse. The simulator begins simulation from the loaded initial state. If you prefer to carry out simulation in real time, open the menu “Simulation” once again and click the item “Real time mode”. The same procedures connected with starting the process of simulation and including the real time mode can be performed using the shortcut keys F3 and F4, indicated after the names of menu.

After loading the initial state and starting the simulation in the simulator it is possible to conduct a lesson. Basic scope of the simulator delivery includes 10 lessons, which as a rule consist of two states: initial and final (this is required to make possible to look through the lessons in automatic mode); each of these states can be also loaded independently of one another. Complete description of the lessons is given in the document “Description of lessons”.

For example: if you would like to see unloading of the unit from 200 MW to 100 MW, you need to load the state “l1bgn” as initial state and then to set the target for the state “l1end”. Therewith, you can see all the actions, which had been carried out by qualified operators. You can work both in real time and in fast-time scale (a few times quicker). Also when loading the state “l1end” you can carry out more drastic unloading, for example, up to 80 MW. Then you can save new state with such name as “80mwt”, and later if you want to look, what actions the students have been made, load the state “l1end” once again and set the state target “80mwt”.

2.2. Viewing of the performed tasks

Prior to independent execution of any tasks firstly it is recommended to see how experienced operators have made it. For that the simulator is provided with the special mode permitting automatic execution of tasks that have been performed earlier. When looking through any of the lessons it is recommended to prepare trends that can help you to comprehend the situation.

Trends within the simulator are sufficiently advanced tool, as its using permits to look how one or another parameter has being changed, and how opening or closing of any control element influences the process.

Additionally, in the course of fulfilling a task in the simulator it is possible to watch, what control actions the students have made or are making at present. For this feature there is a window of the command receipts. This window is arranged in the main window of the instructor computer from the right in the bottom corner; its view is presented in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

In the course of a lesson execution as soon as a manual simulator command is executed by a trainee, the information about actions that have been made is appeared in this window.

Receipt of entered manual command concerning control of process equipment of the power unit includes the following:

  • code of command characterizing control action;
  • system name of variable, which the control action was directed to;
  • value of control action;
  • simulated time defining when this action was made;
  • what module of the simulator software executed this control action;
  • from what monitor this action was initiated;
  • code of this action fulfillment – OK means that it was successively fulfilled;
  • textual description of the variable, which this action was directed to (it could be absent if the simulator designers assumed that this variable would not be critical and so didn’t assign a description to it; this situation is rare in occurrence).

Now, some basic command codes of control actions directed to the process equipment are listed, as they are required to be known to make possible to read information in this window:

  • y – to set new value of a system variable; as a rule this command sets new value of a boundary condition; the digital value of control action sets new value of the variable for this command;
  • vc – to begin closing a manual gate-valve; all manual gate-valves are implemented in the simulator with self-pickup, so if this command is appeared in the receipt window and there is no interlock for this gate-valve, the manual gate-valve begins to being closed, and it will be completely closed after a time (time of stroke). If this command is generated in the process of a manual gate-valve opening, the gate-valve stops in the current intermediate position.
  • vo – to begin opening a manual gate-valve (this command is contrary to the command vc and acts in similar way)
  • vs- to stop a manual gate-valve in an intermediate position (providing that, the command yo or yc were generated before).

It should be specially noted that these commands are only applicable for the manually operated gate-valves (see below, how to call videogram with manually operated gate-valves).

Besides, the receipt window can also include the other commands that referred not to equipment control, but to the simulator operation, such as “Run” (startup the simulator for simulation session). If you don’t prefer these commands will be appeared in the receipt window, select the menu item “Options\Message area…” and choose the item “Message that drive power unit”.

In combination with the trends the receipt window is used as the powerful tool for analysis of dimmed situations that occurred on looking through the lessons or examining the students’ actions.

The simulator has two modes of operation as regards the time:

  • Real-time scale – this mode is used for personal fulfillment of the lessons as well as for automatic viewing of the lessons. The essence of this mode lies in the following: 1 second of simulated time is exactly equal to 1 second of astronomical (real) time. The processes within the simulator are occurred the same way as if it is in real equipment.
  • Fast-time scale – in this case process of simulation is carried out as faster as possible for the computer processing power. This mode is applied mainly in automatic fulfillment of a previously executed task.

Example: The students look through the lesson “Power unit start-up from cold state” in automatic mode (the lesson is designed for 8 hours). After viewing this lesson the students have several questions as regards some process operations, which have been occurred within the period 4 –5 hours from the beginning of the unit start-up.

In this case the instructor can operate the first 4 hours in fast-time scale in the course of automatic review of this task fulfillment, and change over to real-time scale at the required point of time. It can save the time required to repeat fulfillment of the task.

If you have saved an intermediate state automatically or manually in the course of a task execution, it makes possible to short the time for returning to the interested points using these state. Also it is permitted to repeat execution of the task not from the beginning, but from any intermediate state, which has been saved during execution of this task. So it is quite reasonable to save the intermediate states during execution of any task.

To automate this process there is mode in the simulator that permits to set automatic saving (backup policy) of intermediate states. For example, the instructor can set that the simulator will automatically save the intermediate states every 20 minutes. Another question concerned with this mode is how many states are required to save? It is also set with the instructor. How to set this mode is described below.

The next question is, what the simulator will do, if it is time to save the states, but permissible maximum numbers of state has been already reached? In this case the simulator overwrites the new state instead of the earlier recorded previous one.

Names of automatically recorded states are arranged in similar way – “backup” and serial number.

Suppose, at initial moment of the task execution (simulated time 0) the instructor has set that the simulator should write maximum 3 states, which should be recorded at interval 20 minutes of simulated time. Thus, at the moment 1 hour 21 minutes the simulator should have the following automatically created states:

  • backup2 with simulated time 40:00
  • backup3 with simulated time 1:00:00
  • backup1 with simulated time 1:20:00

In the course of operation the simulator has automatically created the state “backup1” in simulated time 20:00; however when it should be required to create new state at the point of time 1:20:00, but maximum permissible number of automatically created states has been reached, the simulator has automatically deleted the earliest state – “backup1” and recorded new state with the same name, corresponded to the point of time 1:20:00.

Thus, it is possible to roll back at least to 40 minutes of simulated time at given parameter setting of automatic saving mode.

When setting the backup mode, the instructor can indicate that the interval is set in the units of astronomical time instead of simulated time units. The difference is that simulated time is not changed while the simulator is in a freeze mode, whereas astronomical time naturally never stops.

Now let’s discuss, how an instructor can set the parameters of automatic state saving within the simulator. The item of the menu “Options/Backup policy…” is provided for this purpose. When selecting this item, the dialog box is appeared on the screen, as it is shown in Figure 2. Type the interval of saving (in the minutes) in the line “Backup frequency”, and number of states to be saved – in the line “Number of backup states”. Then select time mode – model time (simulated time) or astronomical time (real time).

Figure 2

So if autosave mode was activated, it is necessary to perform the following operations to return to a required moment and repeat it:

  • save the current state to use it as the target;
  • find the backup close to the point of error and load it as a current state;
  • set the saved on step 1 state as the target, and repeat the experiment.

When setting the parameters Backup policy… it is required to be guided by the following considerations. For example, if time of the experiment is about 2-3 hours, it is appropriate to set 15 minutes as backup interval and 6 as number of states, i.e. you will have intermediate states for the last 1.5 hour. If total time of experiment is 7-8 hours, the state autosave interval ought to be selected as 60-90 minutes.

2.3. Fundamentals of learning process – trial and error method

The simulator’s designers assume that the most effective method for leaning people is trial and error method. Sometimes, it is useful to make error and see the result of it in the course of learning.

It is clear that this situation is impossible using the real power unit equipment, as it can result in serious financial costs to restore the damaged equipment.

The unique feature of this simulator consists in possibility to make erroneous or not recommended actions deliberately. As a result you’ll get adequate response of the simulated equipment, but nothing is damaged. You can see what the erroneous or not recommended actions could result in if to use the real equipment. You can understand why one or another actions have been erroneous and why it is not recommended to make one or another actions in a situation.

Using the simulator it is possible to work through new process conditions, to analyze some emergency situations occurred in the real unit, to conduct training of new personnel.

2.4 Simulator operating modes: examination and test

The designers have provided several modes for displaying the process parameters in videograms:

  • The mode with displaying of additional (compare with real unit control system) process parameters (educational videograms mode).

This mode is recommended to use in the learning process. When activating this mode, both main (like on the real unit) and additional process parameters are displayed with different colors in mnemonic diagrams. It is the designers’ opinion that using of color-coding is useful, because when looking at the parameter the student can determine, what physical value it is referred to.

Color coding

ColorParameter
RedPressure
GreenFlow rate
YellowTemperature or enthalpy
WhiteLevel or the other process parameters
  • Operation condition without color-coding or additional measurements.

This condition is recommended to use in the course of testing students, as the diagrams are of the same view as on a real power unit.

  • It is permitted to use combinations of these operating modes, such as operation with additional parameters but without color-coding of the main parameters or operation with main parameters with color-coding.

Only the instructor can change these operating modes. It is made using the Instructor service desk, Figure 3:

Figure 3

The list of videograms is from the right, where additional measurements or measurements with color-coding are provided here. Two typesetting fields with keys are arranged from the left of the window.

To delete additional measurements it is required to type the number of videogram in the right typesetting field and turn the key to the left; whereas to call them again it is required to type the number of this videogram and turn the key to the right.

To delete color-coding in the measurement, type the number of videogram in the second typesetting field and turn the key to the left, after which the color-coding mode disappears. To call color-coding mode again, turn the key to the right. It should be noted that if any additional parameters or measurements in mimic diagrams have the color-coding at the moment of saving of current state, they would be again in mimic diagrams after reloading this state.

Note: when selecting “0” in both typesetting fields you control condition of display simultaneously on all videograms.

Selection of this videogram is carried out pressing the combination of keys Alt+F5.

2.5. Selection and handling of manually-operated gate-valve videograms

Besides electrically operated gate-valves using of which the operator can control the process in the real power unit from DCS, there are a lot of manually-operated gate-valves that permit to the rider to control the process locally: when the operator is required to open and close any manually-operated gate-valve, he sends the rider to do it.

There is another special videogram in the simulator to control these gate-valves. The view of this videogram is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4

List of all the manually operated valves available in the simulator is provided from the right. The typesetting field is from the left, using which it is possible to select the required gate-valve.

Control of manual gate-valve is carried out as follows:

  • type the number of the required gate-valve in typesetting field;
  • turn the key to the right (of you want to open the gate-valve) or to the left (if you want to close the gate-valve);
  • if you want to stop the gate-valve in an intermediate position when it is opened or closed, press the button “Stop”; to stop the gate-valve in an intermediate position it is also possible to turn the key to reverse compared with the direction where the gate-valve is moved;
  • the system name of the selected gate-valve is displayed in the upper line of typesetting field, and the position indicator is in the next line;
  • if you have selected wrong gate-valve by mistake, press the button “Reset” to clear the typesetting field.

To call this mimic diagram the key combination Alt+F7 is used.

2.6. Selection of manual control panel

In addition to DCS the real power unit is provided with emergency control panel, where the operator can see some basic parameters of the unit operation. Besides, using this panel it is possible to disconnect the boiler or turbine manually, to break vacuum in condenser and etc.

The view of this panel is shown in Figure 5.

To prevent occasional turn of a switch on the videogram all the switches are equipped with covers. While cover is upon a switch the switch can’t be turned. To open or close cover above a switch it’s necessary to press simultaneously Ctrl key on the keyboard and right mouse button while the mouse pointer is above the switch. When cover is opened use right mouse button to turn the switch on and left mouse button to turn the switch off.

Figure 5

2.7. Independent task fulfillment under direction of instructor

Naturally it is required to load the initial state to fulfill any task.

To simplify the task, the students can load previously preset configurations of the monitor screens. It will be an easy help as regards where to see and what to watch.

Prior to fulfill a task it is required to give a bit of time for the students for acceptance of the shift. The shift acceptance can be carried out either at started simulation (it is more corresponded to the shift acceptance in the real equipment), or at freeze mode. As a rule, the second condition is more preferable for the instructor, as for example, if it is required to repeat any task automatically, time for the shift acceptance will not be automatically repeated.

The instructor shall make a decision, if he permits to watch additional measurements or only regular ones. How to permit or forbid additional measurements is described in 2.4.

When the students begin to fulfill any task, it is no need for the instructor to be behind their back to see what they are doing. He has the complete information in his own monitor as concerns how the task is being fulfilled. He has all the simulator videograms, which are available on the students’ computers, he can draw a trend of any variable, and additionally he can see in the receipt window what actions the students are performing at the moment.

As a rule, the instructor is the first who notices that the students have made a mistake. At this point it is recommended to stop the process of the task fulfillment and freeze the simulation. In this state it is required to try to explain the students what the mistake is lied in.

It is possible to load the initial state again and ask the students to repeat this task fulfillment so as to help them to fulfill the formulated task correctly. It is worth to do again and again till the students achieve the result required by the instructor.

When the most serious errors are eliminated and the students are able to fulfill the task up to the end, may be with some discrepancies, it is possible to stop freezing the simulation in case of any mistake and allows further development of the situation. Only when consequences of a mistake are more evident, stop the process of simulation and analyze the existent situation with the students. It is very useful for learning to see oneself what the erroneous actions have resulted in.

If a task requires for long-term fulfillment, repeating of the whole task consumes much of the time even if to use fast-time scale of the simulator in the certain moments. In this case at the beginning of the task execution it is recommended to activate automatic backup of states (autosave). In many cases it can permit to speed up the process of learning considerably.

If the students have some questions with this experiment completed, for example, they consider that they have made everything correctly from the technology point of view, the instructor shall explain the students using the trends and the command receipt window where any inaccuracy have been. If it is not effective, it is possible to return to one of the saved states and fulfill the action from this point, demonstrating visually how it should be required to act in this situation.

At the end of any exercise both successive or unsuccessful it is possible to save the final state or not. The decision depends on the fact if it is necessary to repeat this execution once again. It should be remembered that backup states occupy sufficient space of the computer hard disk, so if any specific state is not required for the future it should be not saved. The situation can be occurred that there would be no any space in hard disk to backup new states.

In any case on completing the experiment it is possible to print out some videograms and trends, which demonstrate the path of the students’ actions and how they have come to this situation, if necessary.

2.8. Task on eliminating the fed-in malfunction

Some tasks can consist in eliminating the fed-in malfunction.

Creation of an emergency situation is possible by several methods. At first, the menu item “Simulation/Enter a malfunction” is used that located in the main window. Some emergency situations previously developed are listed here, for which the designers provide user-friendly interface.

As soon as the instructor selects any malfunction from the list in this menu item, this malfunction is immediately activated (if, of course, the simulator is not in freeze mode; in this case the malfunction will be created as soon as the instructor changes the simulator to the simulation mode).

Furthermore, the simulator is provided with a possibility to implement a jamming of any standard control element. For that there are two methods.

  1. Using the entry field of instructor main window enter the command y {identifier}stu and value of position, in which the control element shall be jammed (value of position varied from 0 to 99%), therewith is will not be possible to control this element. To cancel this fault it is required to enter the command y {identifier}stu 100. When using this method for “jamming” the actuating device neither the instructor nor the student has a possibility to control these actuating device. For example, to jam the control valve on the fuel line in position 50% (Figure 8), it is required:
  2. Figure 8

    to enter the command y NM11S001stu 50 to the command line of instructor main window, whereas to cancel this fault, enter the command y NM11S001stu 100

  3. Using the command “protect” it is possible to create jamming of any key in the virtual control unit of any actuating device. It should be noted that in jamming the actuating device by this method, the instructor keeps the right to act upon it, whereas the students has not this right. For example, if you would like the student is not able to use the controller in the fuel line in automatic condition during the experiment, the following procedure can be used. The instructor can in advance press button À, of the regulator control block and notify name of this variable that appeare in the message window (Figure 9).

Figure 9

Name of this variable will be NM11S001aut in this case. Now instructor know the name of the variable needed and he can jam exactly the variable at any moment.

When later instructor make a decision to protect using of the regulator in automatic mode he can enter the command “protect NM11S001aut On” in the main window command line and after that transfer the regulator to manual mode from virtual control block of the regulator. After that it will not be possible to change over the controller to automatic mode from any user display (but from instructor monitor it still can be done at any moment).

To cancel this malfunction it is required to enter the command:

  • protect NM11S001aut Of

Taking into consideration the above-mentioned method of malfunction creation, one may confirm that the set of malfunctions, which can be created in the simulator, is practically unlimited. The instructor can similarly implement jamming of any control elements in any combination.

2.9. Checking fulfillment of tasks by the students in testing mode

After the expiration of certain period of learning when it would be clear that the students are sufficiently prepared, it is recommended to carry out testing. It is especially important to test the personnel assigned to work on the real equipment for the first time, or the personnel, which has not worked on the real equipment for long period of time.

It is possible to carry out testing according to the following scheme:

  • to select any of the task (for example, stating-up from hot state);
  • load the initial state
  • give the student a direction
  • perform the shift acceptance (as it was described in 2.4).

It is possible to limit the time for the experiment fulfillment within the simulator, for that, the reserved command “pause” could be used.

Example. You sequentially test two different groups of students, and they fulfill the same exercise (starting the power unit from hot state), therefore, it is necessary to set the same conditions for these groups (as one of the commands can execute the exercise for 2 hours, whereas the other one – for 2.5 hours). It is possible to enter the command ð 2:00:00 in the command line in order that the simulation will be stopped in strictly defined time.

Setting the backup is extremely desirable because if anything can be happened not through the students’ fault (for example, somebody accidentally pulls out the power code when passing over). So it is necessary to have a possibility to proceed with the task fulfillment, rolling back in respect to the time as minimum as possible.

In the course of the students work the instructor draws the trends of variables in his computer. To speed up explanation of mistakes for the students at the end of the experiment, the current state of trends can be printed out at any time using the standard printer, or recorded in a graphics file. See the “System administrator manual” as regards how to print out the contents of a simulator’s window, or how to save it in a graphics file.

Functions of the instructor are minimal in the process of testing, as he should not show the students their errors and help them in testing. More likely the instructor should select the operating condition of the simulator only with the standard measurements.

Printing and saving of trends in graphics file will be recommended in the course of operation as you can draw and quickly save the trends of small discreteness. It is obvious that on completing the experiment you will be able to draw the trends of larger discreteness (if the experiment has lasted for a long time), but this trends do not practically show the short-term tolerances of parameters.

With this test completed the instructor shall record the final state and print out the trends.

The final state of testing shall be assigned a some concept name. It is probably required to store them for a long time, at least till the next testing. In occurrence of any questions concern the personnel qualification, it would always be possible to restore, what the results one or another operator has demonstrated during the last testing.

2.10. Detection of errors

Detection of errors made by the students in the course of leaning upon the simulator is possible with several methods:

  • The instructor notices the erroneous action of the student in the course of an experiment, stops simulation and gives recommendation as concerns the future actions.
  • The instructor notices an error of the student, but gives no recommendations. However on completion of the experiment, the instructor indicates what the error results in.

Example: if during a lesson the instructor notes that one of the students has incorrectly opened (or closed) any of the gate-valves at certain moment of time, after the lesson the instructor can draws position of this gate-valve and another process parameters on the trend and demonstrate, what changes of process parameters have been resulted due to wrong opening (or closing) the gate-valve.

  • If a mistake has been occurred in the course of an experiment, and the instructor has not noted it timely, after the lesson it is necessary to save the final state with some concept name and to give any comment for this state so as not to forget what is it. Then analyze this state using the trends and the command receipts windows. If necessary, do this lesson again in an automatic mode, where the target will be the final state, that you have created. The instructor ought to do the same, if he assumes that there is no sense to continue the lesson due to any erroneous actions.

Notes: Don’t forget to load a screen configuration prior to a task fulfillment beginning, and if necessary, to prepare additional trends. As for details how to draw the trends and create a screen configuration, see the “Instructor manual”.

Remember to activate backup policy (autosave) before a task fulfillment.

2.11. If the student says “I haven’t done it”

On a real equipment after emergency situation occurred, operators often insist that they have done everything correctly. The same cases are occurred on the simulator after completing an experiment, especially in its failure, when the students assert that they haven’t done “it”, and the problem lies in the fact that the simulator has it done instead of them. In these cases, the window of receipts is very useful.

Example: On performing a task, the students have made a mistake resulted in load drop, and after the lesson they have stated that everything was done correctly, and the cause is in the simulator inadequacy. In this case the instructor outputs the required variables in the trend and when placing the mouse cursor to the curve of loads he looks when the load drop has been occurred. Then he finds the same point (in respect to the time period) in the command receipts window and sees what control elements have been used and from what monitor the action has been carried out.

2.12. Independent creation of new tasks by the instructor

According to leaning the simulator it can be seemed that the tasks set with the designers are insufficient. In this case the instructor can create a new task.

It could be turned out that there is no initial state required for this task in the simulator. So first of all, the instructor should set up a new state to create the new task. For that it is required:

  • To reach new conditions (for example, unload from 200 MW to 150 MW) acting upon different controls and checking the process using the trends.
  • To let the situation to be balanced (balanced state is the state, where process parameters of the power unit are not practically changed in respect to the time).
  • To save the current state as initial one, assigning the concept name to it.

Then the instructor shall start to create an ideal execution of the task. For that the instructor fulfills the task independently from initial state and until he decides that this task is to be fulfilled exactly in this manner. In this moment it is required to save the final state – it will be the target, which can be used in automatic mode.

Then, create configuration of the screens including the trends, which is required in your opinion, and save this configuration. Assign the concept name for it in order to remember what this configuration is referred to. Evidently it would be well to use the mode “For all shells” when saving the configuration.

As it has been already mentioned, the scope of the simulator delivery includes 10 lessons totally. Let’s see creation of new lesson “Unloading of power unit to 150 MW”:

  • load the initial state nominal,
  • try to unload up to 150 MW,
  • if you managed to unload to 150 MW and if you are sure that all of your actions made correctly, save this state and write down the comments to it;
  • do new lesson in automatic mode and make sure that everything works correctly.

Prepare and save the required configuration of screens, including trends. Assign the concept name for the configuration.

Note: In the course of time new states become more and more. Most of these states are not required in a short time; they can be removed by the utility rms.

Parameters of the command line :

  • rms state1 state2 … stateN

The utility is intended to be run not from the simulator but independently. In order to run it call a new UNIX-window on the monitor of instructor and type down inside the additional UNIX window a command like the one just mentioned.

2.13. Real-time action upon control elements

The experienced instructor familiar with possibilities of the simulator can perform many actions directly from the main window of his computer. For example, in the course of a lesson the instructor has a possibility to change the values of some process parameters (only if they are boundary conditions) via the command entry field. For that the command “y” is provided.

Example: You would like to change ambient temperature and for that it is required:

  1. Select the variable that is required for our case; this is NG12T001, figure 6.
  2. Type the command ó NG12T001 40 in the entry field, therewith, the ambient temperature changes from 30 to 40 degrees.

Figure 6

2.14. Display of variables in the instructor’s main window

The instructor can observe current values of any variables of the simulator in the instructor station main window. For example, it is possible to display the following values:

  • the power unit load
  • total fuel (gas) flow rate for the boiler
  • feed water flow rate

and etc. These and another parameters let the instructor to follow all the main parameters of the power unit without changing from one diagram to another.

Displaying the variables in the main window of the instructor is possible via two methods:

  • via the menu item “Watch” (see the document “Instructor reference-book”).
  • via the command aw.

For example, you would like to display the variable “HCOND” (level in the condenser), so type the command “aw HCOND” to the command line. As the variable name you can use both system name and user name of the variable.

Deleting a variables from the main window is possible via two methods: either one by one, or all the variables in the instructor’s main window at once.

To delete any of the variables, it is required to:

  • set the mouse cursor to the required variable and click the lest button of the mouse. Therewith, the variable shall be selected.
  • select the menu item Watch/Del current variable, therewith, the selected variable will be deleted.

To delete all the variables at once, select the menu item Watch/Delete All variables, after that all the variables will be deleted.

2.15. Main equipment broken case.

In some cases the simulator makes a decision that trainees have broken the main hardware of the power unit. For example if metal temperatures of some surfaces in the drum are out of reasonable limits (580-630 C) the simulators makes a decision that trainees have burn the boiler out. At the moment on the instructor station a message like on the picture 7 will be shown. From the moment on the simulator aren’t able to continue the calculation of the current conditions of the power unit.

At the situation in order to continue to work with the simulator it’s required to push OK button and after that to load a different state.

Figure 7.