- The TEP institute
- Lipetsk power plant
- Krasnoyarsk power utility
- Ryazan power utility
- Tver power utility
- Vladimir power utility
- Orel power utility
Design and development of a fully-variable logic and dynamic model for a combined circle 490 MW power unit and testing with the model of the unit properties at the start-ups, cooling-down and steep unit unloading".
The presented for the review a joined report of the “Power plant simulators” and the “Orgres” companies consists of a short description of a logic-and-dynamic model for a combined circle 490 MW power unit and tests results for steep unit unloading with the steam turbine switch-off, and for unit trip and start-ups with some analysis of the obtained results and with some recommendations.
The fully-variable logic-and-dynamic model (FVLDM) developed in accordance with the technical requirements for “Design and development of the start-up diagram for 490 MW combined circle gas-and-steam unit for Shekino power plant”, as it can be understood from the presented material, allows to execute all the stages of the project at a high technical level with all the required simulation scope and to execute the simulator testing while start-ups, shut-downs and emergency situations.
For example, the first conducted tests allowed at the project stage to soundly select the speed of operation and the steam flow capacities for “quick pressure reduction and desuperheating” device so that a smooth working of the boiler-utilizer (without working of the safety valves of the boiler and without the boiler trip by the low drum pressure protection) after the steam turbine shutdown could be provided.
Those start-up regimes that were investigated in the project have discovered that the suggested by the gas-turbine designer time-tables of the gas-turbine start-up don’t provide a smooth boiler-utilizer start-up from a hot reserve mode because of a low gases temperature at the gas-turbine outlet. It is required to conduct some additional testing at the model to perfect the power unit start-up regimes from hot reserve modes with possible correction of the gas-turbine start-up time-table. Because the model calculates the electrical processes too it can be said that there is a tool that allows at the stage of the power unit design simulate and investigate huge numbers of the unsteady conditions required for design and development of the start-up diagram for 490 MW combined circle gas-and-steam unit for Shekino power plant.
Reference of the principal engineer-technologist from Lipetsk 2nd power plant R. K. Bekker
A simulator for an our power unit consisted from T-100/110-130 turbine and TGME-464 boiler has been installed at our power plant since July of 1998. The simulator is a full digital replica of our equipment. It was especially developed for our power plant by A.S. Rubashkin.
After the installation the simulator in a process of a regular exploitation requires about no interference from a software engineer. His tasks are limited with the switch the system on and off. Theoretically the simulator can be not switched off during some months. Only monitors can be switched off. Hard failures of the hardware are very seldom – small problems could be resolved by the simulator instructor itself. But in case of a computer failure a software engineer has to install a new computer and connect it to work in the frame of the simulator.
A software engineer can be also required in order to install updates to the simulator. But it happens not very often. If a software engineer has no proper qualification the update installation could require a help from the simulator vendor. The simulator isn’t assumed any changes made by the customer itself. If a software engineer never worked with a UNIX system, at the beginning he doesn’t feel comfortable to work with Linux. But it is not a problem to know some basic Linux techniques.
During the past period the simulator has been using both for initial training and for skill improvements for the power plant operational personnel. At the simulator the personnel works through both the unit start-ups from different thermal conditions and the dispatcher demand exercises. The simulator is also used for an analysis of malfunctions that happened at the real equipment.
There is an additional computational information in the simulator that is not available at the real power unit. The information considerably eases the clarification of the very shades of the power unit behavior and helps to select the most secure and efficient operation modes.
The simulator is also used for training of the emergency situation overcoming.
Not long ago there was a malfunction at our power plant. There was a signal that the turbine’s control valves are closed and soon the boiler was tripped by the low drum level protection. The power plant management decided to investigate the situation. All the engineers including myself at the beginning believed that the chain of events is not possible to occur. But the operator that worked at the power unit at the moment insisted that he watched exactly the chain of events. All the other assumed that all happened an other way – initially the operator lost the drum level, the boiler was tripped and as a result the turbine’s regulating valves were closed. A regular logic tells that when the turbine’s control valves are being closed the live steam pressure is going up so the live steam safety valves had to work but it didn’t happen. In addition it seams that in the situation would the safety valves be opened the drum level could go up only, but the low drum level protection was working. It is happened in reality if the power unit works with the nominal live steam parameters only (13 MPa and 550 ° C at the turbine inlet). It was later demonstrated at the simulator when I decided to use the simulator to investigate the situation. But the same simulator had demonstrated that if the live steam has a reduced thermodynamic parameters (540° C and 12.4 MPa) that the live steam had at the moment of the malfunction, exactly the operator was talking about has to happen. Why? Because at the reduced parameters the time of the pressure increase at the turbine inlet till the safety valves set point is more then the time of the drum level drop till the “low drum level” protection set point due to the drum pressure increase. So thanks to the simulator only the operator was justified.
When a specialist from a similar power unit from some other power plant comes to us we as a rule show him the simulator. What do you think, how during a few minutes to convince such a visitor that the simulator has a real quality? I say him: let try to install at the simulator any working mode of your power unit you better remember – summer, winter, spring and so on. We quickly set up the fuel flow, the oxygen content, cooling water flow and temperature, live steam flow and temperature and so on. In all the cases the coincidence with all other parameters (the unit loading, bleed steam pressures, feed water temperature and so on) is about absolute.
At the competitions to compare the professional skills of the fossil power plant operation personnel our teams all the time demonstrate good results thanks to the simulator including.
In order to comprehensively and correctly use the simulator you ought to have an instructor who conducts the training. To know more about the simulator you could visit the Lipetsk city 2nd power plant.
The “Power plant simulators” company that has developed the simulator constantly improves the simulator and supply us the new software versions because the company is concerned with to have one software version only instead to support different versions for different customers.
As regards the simulator for a power plant with a common steam line – it is more complicated simulator that is able to perform more advanced and capacious problems compared with out simulator.
Testimonial letter for “fossil power plant with common steam line” simulator supplied by “Power plant simulators”
In the training center of the Krasnoyarsk power utility the simulator of a power plant with common steam line supplied by the “Power plant simulators” company has been using for 5 years for special preparation of the heat engineering personnel of power plants including boiler operator, turbine operator and head of boiler-turbine shifts. During the period 124 individuals including 48 turbine operators, 48 boiler operators and 26 heads of shift have passed a specialized training.The simulator has helped in preparation of operations staff for working with a new full-scale automatic control systems: for 1st power plant of Krasnoyarsk city (the turbine) – 8 senior turbine operators and 5 turbine operators, for 2nd power plant of Krasnoyarsk city (the boiler) – 5 senior boiler operators and 5 boiler operators, for power plant of Abakan city (the boiler) - 5 senior boiler operators and 5 boiler operators.
In May of 2001 a competition to test the professional skills of the power plant operators of Krasnoyarsk power utility was organized on the base of the simulator. Teams consisted of head of power plant shift, head of shift of electricians, head of shift of boiler and turbine operators, boiler operator and turbine operator had executed the TGM-84 boiler and PT-60 turbine hot start-up exercise and breakdown elimination exercise. The breakdown elimination exercise included malfunctions in a power plant electrical equipment and in a thermal equipment. The breakdown elimination depended upon the correct actions of all the team members.
During the simulator exploitation it demonstrated itself from a positive side. The simulator’s characteristic from the simulation quality point of view and available service for technological process control conforms to a full-scale simulator. It permits to prepare operators that work with traditional control rooms.
Head of the training center of the Krasnoyarsk power utility A. Shpikov
About the simulator using
In 2003 the hard- and software complex of the simulator for a fossil power plant with a common steam line developed by “Power plant simulators” had been supplied to the Diagelevo power plant of Ryazan power utility.
Since that time the following exercises with the operational personnel has been conducted:
- A familiarity with the simulator. A studying of the simulator’s main features and it’s main capabilities.
- The regular working at the nominal loading, the loading change in the range of 50-100%. The fuel switch from gas fuel to oil fuel and vice verse.
- The boiler and turbine start-ups from hot stand-by modes till the nominal parameters.
- A preparation for a start-up, the boiler and turbine start-ups from the cold conditions.
- Operational personnel actions in case of emergency situations. A planned withdrawal of an auxiliary equipment to a repair.
- A satisfaction of the dispatcher requirements concerning the power plant loading time-table. On-line switching-over.
In the future we are going to develop emergency situations really happened at our power plant and to organize a scheduled study of the situations.
The use of the simulator allows us to increase the operational personnel availability for service in different situations. For any employee the training time can be particularly selected in the frame of a virtual but not a real tense situation.
During the simulator exploitation a high reliability of the hardware and software has been notified. The simulator allows to start working with it in a few hours. The software unification enables a broad using of the simulator that can be seen from the enumerated exercises. The simulator’s documentation has been written with simple and clear texts.
Review of the computer simulator developed by The "Power plant simulators" company.
The computer simulator developed for the thermal equipment of the 3rd Tver city power plant (four BKZ-210-140 boilers, PT-60-130 and T-100/120-130 turbines) describes the operation of all the power plant. The simulator has been visible changed the new specialists of the power plant preparation. It increased the professional skills, craftsmanship and experience of the employees, allowing to work out at the simulator such intricate and time-consuming operations like boiler and turbine start-ups, switching-overs at the steam pipe-lines and emergency situations. I recon it is necessary to train and test all the employees of the boiler and turbine workshop at the simulator. I would recommend the other power plants to use computer simulators developed by the “Power plant simulators” company.
The 3rd Tver city power plant chief engineer Babakov A.C.
Review of the functional features, technical and technological values of the software “Simulator of a power plant with common steam line”.
From the beginning of the 2003 the simulator for operational personnel of a fossil power plant with common steam line (TGM-84B and TGME-464 boilers, PT-60-130/13 and T-100/110-130 turbines) developed by the “Power plant simulators” company has been working.
A studying at the simulator allows to increase the operational personnel’s professional skills. At the simulator the operational personnel is able to scrutinize the power plant functioning and to learn how to with confidence run the power plant at different operational modes including start-ups, shut-downs, work in accordance with a complex power utility dispatcher loading time-table. At the simulator the personnel is also studying skills how to act in emergency situations by watching what is going to happen with the equipment as results of his actions in such the situations.
The simulator in addition to built-in malfunctions is able to simulate many other emergency and non-standard situations that could happen while running of the real power equipment. Unfortunately a lot of equipments simulated in the simulator are not suitable for our equipment and it decrease the simulator efficiency for us. So our power plant has been undertaking an effort to adopt the simulator to our technological diagrams and equipments. It shell lead to the simulator using enlargement both for the personnel training and for adjustment of the operational modes of individual equipment.
The personnel passed a preparation at the simulator had demonstrated excellent results at the 2nd All-Russia competitions to test professional skills of boiler and turbine operators working at power plants with drum boilers and common steam line. The team of Vladimir power plant was the runner-up at the competition.
In addition the simulator was used to conduct the competitions to compare professional skills of boiler and turbine operators between shifts of the Vladimir power plant. The simulator allowed precisely and independently to find a winner of the competition and to discover an average skill level of all the personnel participated in the competition.
The simulator development ought to be continued to simulate the working modes when the power system frequency is changing and the working modes with a turbine transition to work for own maintenance only. In addition the ability to link the simulator with simulators for some other shops ought to be provided. It could enable in the future to develop a joint simulator for all the power plant.
From all the above mentioned a conclusion can be done that the simulator is an essential part of the operator training, the new employees adaptation and skill improvement system.
The Vladimir power utility is sure that any power plant needs such a simulator.
Deputy chief engineer of Vladimir city power plant Sergey K. Prozorov
Computer simulators for fossil power plants with common steam lines developed by “Power plant simulators” company are well-known among power engineering specialists in Russia both among scientists and among boiler and turbine operating personnel. But I think that all the scopes of the simulators are not yet fully realized. For example, the methods of power unit running in accordance with a power utility dispatcher requirements that were working out at the competitions to check the professional skills of the fossil power plant operation personnel at present are in full scale using in order to escape fluctuations while maintaining a dispatcher loading chart. Very often the simulator has been using as an umpire in theoretical disputes of the operational personnel (and not only the operational personnel) concerning the questions that are seemed to be well-known. For example. A forced regime of a power unit working without the HP-heaters group. We initially set-up the most optimum working mode at the simulator, then set-up the working mode at the real equipment and have some savings. Or working modes that concerns with steam throttling upon control valves are checked at the simulator and the real equipment confirms the economy. I don’t even speak about well-known facts that at the simulator start-ups, unit trips, safeguarding, malfunctions can be trained. I would like to pay an attention on the issues of our personnel training that are not fully clear today even for the power industry reform designers.
By using the simulators for electricians (I tested it at the stage of the development) that simulate power plant electric circuit and the power grids it is easy to train not only to correctly make switching-over but to predict commercial results of the switching-over.
From my point of view the most important thing is to extend the simulator’s customers. The simulators could be very interesting not only for technical service departments but for service departments oriented to plan a power plant operation modes.
The Orel city power plant chief engineer Alexander P. Bokiy